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Patient Education


Endometriosis is a painful condition in which cells of the inner lining of the uterine cavity (endometrium) grow outside the uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves the ovaries, bowel, tissue lining of pelvis, peritoneum, pouch of Douglas (an area posterior to uterus), etc. Similar to the endometrium these cells respond to the female hormones. It thickens, breaks down and even bleeds during each menstrual cycle because of which the symptoms worsen with the onset of menstruation. This displaced tissue has no way to exit the body, it gets trapped and the surrounding tissue becomes irritated and eventually develops into scar tissue and adhesions (abnormal tissue that binds organs together).


Commonest symptom is pelvic pain.Painful periods, heavy periods.Pain during intercourse.Pain of endometriosis can be very severe and debilitating.

It is estimated that about 30-40% of patients of endometriosis experience Infertility.


Surgical treatment: Surgical intervention has a significant role especially in treatment of infertility.

Medical treatment:Pain killers for pelvic pain.

Complications: The main complication of endometriosis is impaired fertility. Approximately one-third to one-half of women who have endometriosis have difficulty in getting pregnant.

Treatment of Infertility: IVF is the mainstay of treatment of infertility since once diagnosed it is better not to delay pregnancy further.


Polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS is the most common hormonal disorder in reproductive age group. The name of this condition comes because of the multiple small cysts seen in the ovaries of these women.


Irregular menstrual cyclesExcess hair growth or HirsutismAcneObesity

Difficulty in conceiving because of lack or infrequent ovulation. The hormone levels are out of balance in women with PCOS: They have higher than normal levels of androgens and may have lower than normal levels of estrogen. The high levels of androgens can cause:

Problems with ovarian follicle growth and development, which may prevent the release of eggs.

Make immature follicles on the ovaries which bunch together, forming large lumps or cysts

Create the other symptoms of PCOS, including excess hair growth and acne.


Management of Infertility by induction of ovulation.

Early diagnosis and treatment can help patients avoid long term complications such as Diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, stroke, etc.

Life-style changes: Low calorie diet and regular exercise help women to loose weight. Even 5% weight loss can have positive effects on insulin resistance, glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome.